I've come across this error twice in the last week while helping clients update their 2017 vaults to the 2017 Hotfix 1. The error displays during the installation process, and prevents you from completing the install. This is a permissions issue, and it can still come up regardless of your Admin rights.
Autodesk has posted a workaround to enable a successful installation. See the original article here: Error - Installation Ended Prematurely.